聖經中的科學哲學研究[通識課程]

我們與古代聖經的作者之間,因著時間和空間的差距,思想、風俗、文化等差別大。當我們去博物館參觀許多古物,卻無法明白這些古物是具有什麼用意?與我們有何關係?除非藉著專家的說明,否則我們如陷五里霧中,會覺得索然無味。照樣,我們讀聖經,若不明白其背景,總覺得難以理解。[http://www.tjc.org.tw/bHermen/bHer11.htm]

網上中英文聖經 http://www.ccim.org/bible/ 

淺談聖經

   

大家好,很感激有此機會來向大家報告。我不是來傳教的,只是想把一本好書介紹給大家,就像介紹讀書心得一般。

這幾年每當聖誕節時,我都會十分感傷。因為20餘年前我帶著妻兒(那時我尚未離婚,有31女都很小),在美國唸研究所。當時非常窮(雖然現在也不富有,享受談不上,但至少還夠吃、穿)。全靠獎學金(每月800美金左右)及大哥的接濟(因我父親過世較早,母親年邁由大哥大嫂照顧,他們也經常寄錢給我接濟生活)。到感恩節與聖誕節時,亦無能力過節,可是就在感恩節與聖誕節前夕,常常在晚上,會有美國當地鄰居,把火雞、包好的聖誕禮物、甚至聖誕樹送到我家門口,悄悄離去,到第二天早上開門,發現過節的基本東西全都有了,心中的感動令人難以忘懷。回國後,每當聖誕節時,都不免回味當年。

我聽過一個有關聖誕節的故事,是說有一位波斯人,名叫阿答班,他也是上帝撿選的先知之一,他由啟示得知「耶穌」將在伯利恆誕生,就將家產變賣換了金、寶石及一粒黑珍珠,帶些乾糧飲水,打算輕便趕去獻禮朝拜,一路星夜趕路,卻遇到一位希伯萊人躺在地上,重病快死了,他雖急於趕路,卻也不忍心棄而不顧,加上家產均已變賣,只得將要獻給耶穌的禮物中,取出一粒寶石,賣了為他治病,延誤了多日,那希伯萊人還是死了,他又將他安葬才走。他再趕去伯利恆時,約瑟與瑪琍亞已帶耶穌逃避希律士兵的追殺走避埃及了。他只好到處去找,找不到,卻遇到一群希律王的士兵正要殺害所有2歲以下小孩以除去耶穌,一個婦人跪在地上求士兵不要殺她的兒子,士兵不理,此時,阿答班取出黃金,要求士兵手下留情,此士兵看了心動,就取了走了。

之後,阿答班一直在埃及各地流浪多年,找尋耶穌,當地窮人甚多,他剩下的錢也用於救濟窮人用完了。最後,他聽說耶穌已回耶路撤冷,就趕去,路上遇到一個小女孩,哭訴父親死了且欠債不少,要賣身葬父且還債,阿答班不忍,就將最後一粒黑珍珠賣了幫她,待處理完,再趕到耶路撤冷時,他也已心力交碎,又正逢耶穌被釘十字架之時,此時突然天昏地暗,又地震,他已支持不住倒下,口中還說:「主啊,寬恕我,我不行了,快死了,無法見你了,我也沒禮物獻給你了。」。可是在他的耳邊卻有聲音說:「你將與我同在,你的禮物我已收到了」。他很奇怪的問「為什麼?」。這聲音說「(馬太2534--40

 

25:35

  

25:36

  

穿

25:37

  

25:38

  

穿

25:39

  

25:40

  

 

」。

一個窮苦學生,為了付學費,挨家挨戶地推銷貨品。到了晚上,發現自己的肚子很餓,而口袋裡只剩下一個小錢,他便下定決心,到下一家時,向人家要餐飯吃。然而當一位年輕貌美的女孩子打開門時,他卻失去了勇氣,他不敢討飯,只要求一杯水喝。
女孩看出來他飢餓的樣子,於是給他端出一大杯鮮奶來。他不慌不忙地將它喝下,而且問說:應付多少錢?而她卻回答:你不要付一分錢。母親告訴我們,不要為善事要求回報。於是窮苦的學生說:那麼我只有由衷地謝謝了。
當學生離開那個人家時,不但覺得自己的身體強壯了不少,而且信心也增強了起來。他原來已陷入絕境,準備放棄一切。後來,這個窮苦學生成為了一位著名的醫生——郝武德凱利
年後,那個女孩病情危急,當地醫生都束手無策,家人將她送進大都市,請專家來檢查她的病情。他們請到的醫生,就是凱利醫生。
當凱利醫生聽說病人是某某城的人時,他的眼中充滿了奇特的光芒。他立刻穿上醫生服走向醫院大廳,進了她的病房。凱利醫生一眼就認出了那位女孩,他立刻回到診斷室,並且決心要盡最大的努力來使她康復。
從那天起,他特別觀察她的病情。經過一段漫長的奮鬥之後,終於幫她擺脫了病魔。最後,批價室將出院的帳單送到凱利醫生手中,請他簽字。醫生看了帳單一眼,然後在帳單邊緣上寫了幾個字,就將帳單轉送到女孩的病房裡。
女孩起初不敢打開帳單,因為她確定,需要她一輩子才能還清這筆醫藥費。但最後她還是打開看了,而且帳單邊緣上的一些東西,特別引起她的注目。她看到了這麼一句話:一杯鮮奶已足以付清全部的醫藥費!簽署人:郝武德凱利醫生。
女孩的眼中充滿了淚水……
慈愛與善心,就是這樣藉由眾人的心和手,不斷地在傳播著。如今你也可將它再傳揚出去。(柬埔寨星洲日報.小說版

若是人們都能體會這段話的意義,社會必更祥和美好。天下為公且世界大同可期。

其實,中國古書中也常有「上帝」一詞,如「尚書」。而聖經中講挪亞方舟的故事,在方舟埵@有挪亞夫婦、他們3個兒子夫婦,共8人「創世紀7:13」,中國字『船』,也是八口在一舟呢!中國字『天』也是『一大』同時也有『二人(上帝與耶穌)』的含意。

聖經中最主要的重點有:

1.    說明神的存在、神與人的關係

2.    教導人生命的意義與生活的目的

3.    譂述人類行為規範

神是否存在?聖經中許多人為此做見証,甚至犧牲生命。假如有個人有個大花園,堶掛蓂z的非常有序,小橋流水,亭臺摟閣,花木扶蔬,若有人問園主,這些是誰做的,告以自然存在,我們必不相信。而地球上那麼多山川河流,生物,宇宙中星球運行,會沒有人做成的嗎?人在有意無意中都會承認有「神」存在,不論你信那位神,例如;突遇大地震死傷慘重,人們會叫「天啊!或神啊!」,即便他是物理博士、數學家、他也不會叫「啊x + y !」。這表示人類本性中知道有「神」的存在。信賴「神」可以使人不怕黑暗或邪惡力量,勇於行正義之事,因為人們會覺得冥冥中有「神」在看,「人在做天在看」,「善惡到頭終有報」,所以才會堅持。而聖經中『當孝順父母、不可殺人、不可姦淫、不可偷盜、不可做假見証害人、要愛人如已』等,也促成維持社會秩序的倫理。

若信神的存在,使人精神有寄託,這種寄託對窮人富人、大官小民、一律平等。你隨時可向神禱告,不必花一文錢,而且信賴神的存在可以美化人生,例如人常會犯罪,籍由洗禮、領受聖餐等簡單儀式,可使人藉由誠心悔改而得淨化,所以人們結婚、死亡等重大人生儀式會想到去教堂,就是這個道理。

聖經中的神,是創造我們的「天父」,衪先創造我們的靈魂『

Gen 35:18

便 便

1Ki 17:21

  使

1Ki 17:22

Luk 8:55

便 西

』,再讓經由亞當與夏娃【第一對世人】使我們來世上接受肉體,因亞當與夏娃在伊甸園吃禁果的選擇,使世人能來世上,而且在世只是學習,學習靈魂如何與肉體相處,這是一段短考驗時間,而吃禁果的後果為人都必死,且使肉體軟弱易犯罪,犯罪之後就不聖潔,『

Eph 1:4

  使

Heb 12:14

不聖潔就不能回神身邊』。耶穌是衪所創造的「長子」,能克服肉體軟弱,由於以無罪身份為世人受死,使世人若悔改則可重回神身邊。「基督」二字即救贖主的意思。

人死為靈魂離開肉體,此肉體埋地腐敗,但人人都會復活,即靈魂再次進入一個永不死亡的身體,這個身體與靈永遠結合,不是輪迴,而是復活。但是這個永久的身體是因人在今生控制肉體的情形而不同,『

1Co 15:21

1Co 15:22

 

1Co 15:41

Jhn 5:29

但悔改可得贖。

Act 24:15

 

1Co 15:32

1Co 15:35

1Co 15:42

1Co 15:43

耀

1Co 15:44

1Co 15:52

1Pe 3:18

 

1Pe 3:21

 

Rev 1:5

使

』。

所以人今生的目的是學習與考驗過程,也是証明自已的過程,要不斷努力向上、向善,最後成為像神一樣

Mat 5:48

,其他宗教也有教人最後成佛成仙成道,其目標似乎相同。

有人說「生命的意義在創造宇宙繼起之生命,生活的目的在增進人類全體的生活」可以代表其含義。而肉體軟弱,人人都會犯罪,由於神愛世人,衪必須公平對待世人,若你犯罪傷害他人,衪為愛每個人,必給你處罰,以對別人公平,可是衪也給你悔改機會,悔改有3步驟:

1.    承認犯錯

2.    為犯之過道歉、做補償

3.    下絕心不再犯

做到之後,你就潔淨了。有時候犯的過無法補償,接受法律的制裁也可做為某種程度的補償。

有個小故事;一個小孩的童年是生活在一個很特殊的歷史時期,學校很少上課,所以大多數時間不是玩,就是坐在馬路邊上。女孩子們都玩跳繩、拋小沙包,這些簡易的遊戲是她兒童生活中最重要的一部份。
有一次,她的用自行車內胎制的牛皮筋因為用久了全線崩潰了。她夢想能買一股真正的牛皮筋回來跳,但是沒有錢。一天,看見她母親放在桌上的兩塊錢,她下了很久的決心,終於鼓起全身勇氣,了一塊抓在手裡,走出房間。握著那一塊錢,心慌地在院子裡來回走,不知該怎麼才好。當時的一塊錢,對於一個孩子來說就像現在的一千元那麼多,想像中可以買很多很多的牛皮筋、糖紙、印花紙、彩色花線,好像這一輩子的開銷問題全能解決了。
她當時感覺自己就像是個百萬富翁,但是驚喜之後的最大憂慮是被父母發現了怎麼辦?晚上天要黑了錢往哪兒放才安全呢?橫豎想不出辦法來。除了母親,她還擔心那個可以用鼻子當偵探的哥哥,他可以聞出所有她做的錯事和得到的東西,結果不是告發,就是分贓,她緊緊捏著錢的手都出汗了。
越想越沒路,於是,乾脆先裝病,不吃不喝的上床睡覺了。這一夜睡的跟打仗一樣。晚上做夢,自己一會兒是警察,一會兒是小偷,追呀逃呀,好不容易熬到天亮了,已經嚇出了一身冷汗。

吃早飯時,母親先溫柔關切地問她感覺好一些沒有,然後又自言自語地說:奇怪,昨天明明放在桌上兩塊錢,怎麼後來就變成一塊了呢?她聽了母親的話,生怕母親看到她那慚愧發紅的臉,不由自主地裝作彎下腰去繫鞋帶,彎下腰才發現那天穿的是沒有帶子的鞋。
這個動作被她哥哥那個尖鼻子看見了。看哪,眼睛眨一眨,老母雞變鴨,這是胡得你魔術師發明的最新把戲。他在一旁用恨不得咬他一口的怪腔怪調,臉對著母親,眼睛斜著我說。她再也忍不住了,衝進房間,抓起藏在枕頭下的一塊錢,交給母親,說:媽媽,我幫你把錢找到了。母親高興地問:在哪兒?她胡亂指了一個方向,就在那兒。然後拎著書包似箭一般射出去了,只感到背後有兩道如電的目光向她追來。
又坐在馬路邊上了,回想起這不到十六個小時的百萬富翁經歷,她覺得還是用那自行車內胎做的皮筋算了,不要牛皮筋了,還是這樣心裡踏實啊。母親平時嘮叨不停的教育,這時象放錄音一樣,在耳邊迴響:要做一個誠實、善良的孩子……”
小時候這一段趣事和母親的話,深深地印刻在她的腦海裡。長大成人之後,這段兒時經歷不時地在提醒她用不誠實的方法得了不該得的東西,良心永遠不會舒服坦蕩。(柬埔寨星洲日報.小說版)悔改就不會再有罪惡感。

信神,前面已提及,可使人不怕,例如;一個廟有一天有人在堶惜j叫有鬼,結果外面的人都衝進去看熱鬧,而堶悸漫M尚或尼姑卻全跑出來,你想想,他(她)們到底知不知道自已在幹什麼?每天唸經沒懂之故。讀聖經要得其真義才行啊。

聖經中也提到培養信心的重要。交響樂團指揮努力揮動指揮棒,前指一下後點一下左右上下舞動,音樂隨之而起,若是他拼命揮舞,演奏者卻突然寂靜不動,會令他有何後果?小孩在外受人欺,回家告父母,父母均會予以安慰,若父母突然完全不理,小孩會不會奇怪?希伯萊書:

11:1

  

11:2

  

科學研究者因相信會成而努力,農夫相信作物會長而種植,戀人因相信對方會愛他而追求,古人云:「吾心信其可行,雖移山填海之難,亦如反掌折枝之易。」若無信心,一切難成。

我們工作才知道工作的價值,吃東西才知道它的味道,憑信心才能創造人類新境界。讀聖經才知道其中的奧妙。

聖經分二部份,在耶穌誕生前的記錄共39部,合稱舊約,耶穌誕生後的記錄共27部,合稱新約,合計66部,為66大順之數也。

有個故事講到,很久以前在紐西蘭鄉下,有個母親,要他那剛有點學坯的小男孩去家附近小河中提水,然後倒在一個盆子堙A但是卻給他一個籃子而非桶子,小孩雖有些奇怪,卻也無奈,只好快快來回跑去取水,很多次才倒了半盆,於是他向母親說,籃子會漏,不好取水,大半卻漏掉。他母親看了看,對他說,你看,那個籃子有沒有什麼不同?他看了說,好像變乾淨了。他母親說,對了,我們要改變需要多次努力,一個人有過失有如籃子髒一點,籍由多次清洗,逐漸會變乾淨。讀聖經也要常讀,才會逐步改變心靈。

上天在乎你我每一位。

在暴風雨後的一個早晨,一個男人來到海邊散步。他一邊沿海邊走著,一邊注意到,在沙灘的淺水窪裡,有許多被昨夜的暴風雨卷上岸來的小魚。它們被困在淺水窪裡,回不了大海了,雖然近在咫尺。被困的小魚,也許有幾百條,甚至幾千條。用不了多久,淺水窪裡的水就會被沙粒吸乾,被太陽蒸乾,這些小魚都會乾死的。
男人繼續朝前走。他忽然看見前面有一個小男孩,走得很慢,而且不停地在每一個水窪旁彎下腰去。他在撿起水窪裡的小魚,並且用力把它們扔回大海。這個男人停下來,注視著這個小男孩,看他拯救著小魚們的生命。
終於,這個男人忍不住走過去:孩子,這水窪裡有幾百幾千條小魚,你救不過來的。
我知道。小男孩頭也不抬地回答。
哦?那你為什麼還在扔?誰在乎呢?
這條小魚在乎!男孩一邊回答,一邊拾起一條魚扔進大海。
這條在乎,這條也在乎!還有這一條,這一條,這一條……”

各位,神在乎你我每一位。

我要再講一個故事:

人生,到底在追求甚麼?

有一個美國商人坐在墨西哥海邊一個小漁村的碼頭上, 看著一個墨西哥漁夫划著一艘小船靠岸。小船上有好幾尾大黃鰭鮪魚,這個美國商人對墨西哥漁夫能抓麼高檔的魚恭維了一番,還問要多少時間才能抓這麼多?
才一會兒功夫就抓到了。墨西哥漁夫說。
你為甚麼不待久一點,好多抓一些魚?美國人問。

墨西哥漁夫覺得不以為然:這些魚已經足夠我一家人生活所需啦!
美國人又問:那麼你一天剩下那麼多時間都在幹甚麼?
墨西哥漁夫解釋:我呀?我每天睡到自然醒,出海抓幾條魚,回來後跟孩子們玩一玩,再跟老婆睡個午覺,黃昏時晃到村子裡喝點小酒,跟哥兒們玩玩吉他,我的日子可過得充實又忙碌呢!
美國人不以為然,幫他出主意,他說:我是美國哈佛大學企管碩士,我倒是可以幫你忙!你應該每天多花一些時間去抓魚,到時候你就有錢去買條大一點的船。就可以抓更多魚,再買更多漁船。然後你就可以擁有一個漁船隊。到時候你就不必把魚賣給魚販子,而是直接賣給加工廠。然後你可以自己開一家罐頭廠,如此你就可以控制整個生產、加工處理和行銷。然後你可以離開這個小漁村,搬到墨西哥城,再搬到洛杉磯,最後到紐約。在那裡經營你不斷擴充的企業。
墨西哥漁夫問:這又花多少時間呢?
美國人回答:十五到二十年。
然後呢?
美國人大笑著說:然後你就可以在家當皇帝啦!時機一到,你就可以宣佈股票上市,把你的公司股份賣給投資大眾。到時候你就發啦!就可以幾億幾億地賺!
然後呢?
美國人說:到那個時候你就可以退休啦!你可以搬到海邊的小漁村去住。每天睡到自然醒,出海隨便抓幾條魚,跟孩子們玩一玩,再跟老婆睡個午覺,黃昏時,晃到村子裡喝點小酒,跟哥兒們玩玩吉他囉!
墨西哥漁夫疑惑的說:我現在不就是這樣了嗎?柬埔寨星洲日報.小說版

中文聖經譯本流源

  聖經翻譯早在公元前三世紀便已開始,但要到公元七八世紀才有把聖經譯成中文的文獻——“大秦景教流行中國碑。大秦即羅馬;景教即基督教的聶斯脫略派。此派始於敘利亞,其始創人聶斯脫略因提倡基督二位二性說而於公元431年被教會第三次大公會議定為異端,然而,此派積極傳教,公元635年(即唐太宗貞觀九年)聶斯脫略派傳入中國。公元781年(即唐德宗建中二年)建立大秦景教流行中國碑。碑文講述人類的墮落、彌施訶(即彌賽亞)的降生、救主在世的事蹟等及介紹景教入華、盛衰的經過,也有景教經典《尊經》翻成中文的記載。景教經典包括可能是將舊新約聖經翻譯的部分,可惜這些經書的譯本全都失傳,有待考古學的新發現,方能有更進一步的研究。

  直至十三世紀中葉羅馬天主教來華,聖經中譯才有新的發展。最早的相信是若望孟高維諾神父所譯的蒙古文舊約詩篇和新約全書。其後有利瑪竇神父的“祖傳天主十誡”、巴設神父的白話文四福音、保羅書信及希伯來書、陽瑪諾翻譯四福音的《聖經直解》、賀清泰教士的《古新聖經》等。《巴設譯本》更可能成為後人馬殊曼和馬禮遜譯經時的藍本。

  十八世紀末,隨著基督教來華,聖經的中譯本可說是百花齊放了。繼《馬殊曼譯本》後,有馬禮遜的《神天聖書》及其後譯本《新遺詔書》和《舊遺詔書》、郭實臘修訂的《救世主耶穌新遺詔書》、太平天國刪改的《舊遺詔聖書》及《新遺詔聖書》。

  十九世紀中葉,第一部由不同差會宣教士聯手翻譯的《委辦譯本》面世。譯員不但把聖經重譯,更統一了經文中的名稱和名詞。這次譯經工作是一項突破,過程中遇到的問題,如:各代表在神學立場上出現分歧,“神”、“上帝”之間的抉擇等,加深了差會對譯經的瞭解,也作為日後譯經工程的借鏡。

  裨治文中途退出委辦會,與克陛存、文惠廉等出版了《裨治文譯本》。後來最早退出委辦會的浸信會邀請宣教士高德、羅爾和迪因按著宗派的立場修訂《馬殊曼譯本》為《高德譯本》。

  自十九世紀初,由於語文的發展,傳統思想和觀念的動搖,開啟民智、培植國力的急務,一貫只有讀書人、文人所認識的文言文漸漸應不上當時在文字方面的需要,較通俗的淺文理文便應時而起。聖經的翻譯也為滿足大眾的需要,淺文理的譯本紛紛出版,例如:《楊格非淺文理譯本》、《包約翰、白漢理淺文理譯本》、施約瑟的《二指版》等。《二指版》的得名就是譯者施約瑟在翻譯舊約官話譯本後中暑癱瘓,只能用兩隻手指工作。他獨力翻譯十多年,出版了一本淺文理譯文。

  淺文理譯本雖受歡迎,但只是一段很短的過渡譯本。十九世紀中葉,由於當時朝廷和各地官員所用的語言(即官話,今天的國語),適用全國百分之九十的地域,要更有效地把福音傳給中國人,官話譯本聖經就不能或缺了。宣教士也對此十分積極,不遺餘力地翻譯官話聖經,先後有麥都思和施敦力合作改寫《委辦譯本》的《新約全書》、當代有名的漢學家:包約翰、艾約瑟、施約瑟、白漢理、丁韙良等以《麥都思、施敦力官話譯本》為藍本翻譯的《北京官話新約全書》、施約瑟依照《北京官話新約全書》體裁翻譯的《舊約譯本》、英國聖公會將《北京官話新約全書》和施約瑟的《舊約譯本》合印的《新舊約全書》、楊格非將其淺文理新約以白話文重寫的《楊格非官話譯本》、蕭靜山的《新經全集》等,還有一直沿用至今天的《官話和合本》(後稱《國語和合本》,現簡稱《和合本》)。

  《官話和合本》可說是中譯聖經的一個重要里程,為聖經翻譯掀開新的一頁。在當時幾十種聖經譯本中,教會和信徒實在需要一本劃一的標準聖經。其實這個“呼聲”很早已經出現,可惜在神學觀點上的分歧不是容易“劃一”的,翻譯《委辦譯本》的經驗就是一個好例子了。

  1890年,上海舉行了宣教士大會,由各個差會派代表出席。大會通過進行翻譯和合本的工作,為文言文、淺文理和官話譯本劃一標準;並成立三個委員會負責翻譯這三種譯本。

  《淺文理和合新約聖經》最早完成。深文理則波折重重,工作十六年《深文理和合新約聖經》才出版。後來,淺文理與深文理兩翻譯小組合併,《文理譯本全書》則於合併後十二年出版。至於《官話和合本》翻譯小組由於推選譯員的問題,工作十六年才完成新約,再工作十三年,舊約完成,並正式易名為《國語和合本》。

  《和合本》聖經的譯者是以“忠於原文”為目標,就是要“堅持文字上的準確”,但由於譯經原則改變,這個目標就有新的理解:“重視意義上的準確”。在舊約翻譯的十三年中,新約經過了多次的修訂,使其譯文更清楚、優美。《和合本》實在為教會提供了一部翻譯比以前更準確、更適合大眾閱讀的譯本,於是它就成了教會和信徒最受歡迎的聖經譯本,漸漸建立起典範的權威,成為主流,也為教會和信徒的語言系統增添了不少獨特的基督教詞彙。

  然而,隨著考古學家不斷有新的發現,聖經學者對原文和聖經的歷史背景的認識越來越多,修訂譯本或重新翻譯更準確的聖經譯本實在無可厚非。同時,語文隨著時代而轉變,在《和合本》出版後數十年間,中文現代化的過程並不曾停止,很多字詞的意思已有別於當日了,語法文體的運用也改變了。教會實在需要一本翻譯更理想和更適合當代人閱讀的聖經譯本。

  近年,很多人也作出了努力,五十年代有徐匯修院的《新譯福音》、狄守仁的《簡易聖經讀本》、蕭靜山按希臘文再修訂的《新經全集》;六十年代有今天天主教教會仍然採用的《思高聖經譯本》;七十年代有《呂振中譯本》、《當代福音》、《新約全書新譯本》、《當代聖經》、《現代中文譯本》及至九十年代初的《聖經新譯本》;也有於八十年代修訂《和合本》的《新標點和合本聖經》;還有(國際聖經協會)尚在翻譯的《新漢語譯本》、及其他的翻譯工作

  譯經工作是不竭不止的。從歷史中,我們看到此項工作未曾停止過,一直在進行。

  今天,我們或會對各個聖經譯本的強弱處很有興趣,但是我們必須明白,讀哪個譯本並不是最重要的,最重要的是從中讀到一些信息。沒有一個譯本是完美的,但是神總會藉著我們所看的譯本對我們說話。我們讀經,神就清楚明白地對我們說話。在云云的譯本中,正如保羅所說的:“有的傳基督是出於嫉妒紛爭,也有的是出於好意。”但“這有何妨呢?或是假意,或是真心,無論怎樣,基督究竟被傳開了。為此,我就歡喜。”(腓一15, 18)

附表

年分(公元)

譯本

781

景教碑

十三世紀末、十四世紀初

《若望孟高維諾譯本》:詩篇、新約全書(蒙古文)

十六世紀末

利瑪竇譯祖傳天主十誡

1636

陽瑪諾的《聖經直解》

1700

《巴設譯本》

十八世紀末

賀清泰《古新聖經》,未有印刷發行

1822

《馬殊曼譯本》

1823

馬禮遜《神天聖書》

1837

麥都思、郭實臘、裨治文、馬儒漢《新遺詔書》

1840

麥都思、郭實臘、裨治文、馬儒漢《舊遺詔書》 郭實臘修訂的《救世主耶穌新遺詔書》

十九世紀末

太平天國刪印《舊遺詔書》為《舊遺詔聖書》 刪改《救世主耶穌新遺詔書》為《新遺詔聖書》(附註解)

1850

《委辦本四福音》

1852

《委辦譯本新約全書》

1853

高德修譯的《新約全書》

1854

《委辦譯本》

1857

麥都思、施敦力改寫《委辦譯本》的新約官話譯本

1859

《裨治文譯本》的新約

1862

《裨治文譯本》

1866

《北京官話新約全書》

1868

高德、羅爾悌、迪因修譯的《舊約全書》

1872

《北京官話新約全書》(改訂本)

1875

施約瑟的《北京官話舊約全書》 王多默的《宗徒大事錄》

1878

《北京官話新舊約全書》

1885

楊格非的《新約淺文理譯本》

1889

揚格非的《新約淺文理譯本》(修訂版) 包約翰、白漢理合譯的淺文理新約全書 《楊格非官話譯本》

1892

德雅的《四史聖經譯註》

1897

李問漁的《新約全書》

1902

施約瑟的《二指版》

1905

楊格非的《舊約淺文理譯本》(至雅歌)

1904

《淺文理和合新約聖經》

1906

《深文理和合新約聖經》 《官話和合譯本新約全書》

1919

《文理和合本》 《國語和合譯本》

1946

吳經熊的《聖詠譯義》

1949

吳經熊的《新約全集》

1954

徐匯修院的《新譯福音》

1955

狄守仁的《簡易聖經讀本》

1956

蕭靜山的《新經全集》

1967

蕭鐵笛的《新約全書》

1968

《思高聖經譯本》

1970

《呂振中譯本》

1974

《當代福音》

1976

《新約全書新譯本》

1979

《當代聖經》 《現代中文譯本》

1993

《聖經新譯本》

 參考書目:

趙維本(著)。1993年。《譯經溯源──現代五大中文聖經翻譯史》。香港:中神。

陳惠榮(著)。1986年。《中文聖經翻譯小史》。香港:中文聖經新譯會。

Strandenaes, T. (1987). Principles of Chinese Bible Translation: as expressed in five selected version of the New Testament and exemplified by Mt 5:1-12 adn Col 1. N

現時的英文聖經譯本種類繁多,被人普遍使用的也不少。簡單來說,現時的英文譯本可分為六類:

 

1. 按文意翻譯(Dynamic Equivalent)的譯本,包括New International Version (NIV)、New International Reader's Version (NIrV)及The Jerusalem Bible (JB)。

New International Version (NIV) NIV是重新用原文翻譯的譯本,由超過來自世界各地的英語國家的一百多個福音派(Evangelical)聖經學者合力譯成。它的特色是融合直譯與意譯方法,把原作者的思想以英語表達出來,一方面能保留原文的神髓,另一方面又能使讀者明白原意,是很適合個人研讀之用的譯本。這譯本自1987年起便越過KJV成為最暢銷之聖經譯本。

New International Reader's Version (NIrV) 這是一本較「簡易」的NIV讀本,NIrV的特色是它用有限的詞語,以簡單的短句表達,就算是小學生也能明白。所以這譯本很適合英語程度較低的人閱讀。

The Jerusalem Bible (JB) JB可以說是第一本用原文翻譯成的天主教聖經,該譯本有新舊約外,也有次經及偽經,還有非常豐富的輔助資料,對了解經文意思非常有幫助。不過譯者持天主教信仰的立場翻譯,與基督教譯本稍有差別。

2. 採直譯方法(Literal)的譯本,例如New King James Version (NKJV)。

New King James Version (NKJV) NKJV是由近代普遍使用的King James Version (KJV)修訂、以字義釋經的原則翻譯而成。此譯本重新用現代流行的美式英語翻譯,比KJV更容易使人明白。雖然新版本修正了不少KJV的錯誤,但它仍沿用舊版的希臘文本(Greek Text)──Textus Receptus,以致NKJV不同於其他用較新的希臘文本翻譯成的聖經。

3. 用純粹直譯方法(Strictly Literal)的譯本,例如New American Standard Bible (NASB)。

New American Standard Bible (NASB) NASB循譂merican Standard Bible的特色,按照原文的字面意義、文句結構完全直譯,所以該譯本的字義準確,然而所使用的英語卻較為生硬、不自然。此譯本適用於聖經研究,多於日常誦讀。

4. 直譯中又合符慣用語(Literal with Freedom to be idiomatic)的譯 本,例如New Revised Standard Version (NRSV)。

New Revised Standard Version (NRSV) NRSV不僅採用字義直譯的方法,也容許使用一些日常慣用的英語翻譯,這是與NKJV及NASB有所不同。NRSV最特別的是它避免了直譯一些帶有男性化的詞語,例如在保羅書信中稱呼所有信徒為「弟兄」(brothers),在NRSV則譯成「弟兄姊妹」(brothers and sisters)或「朋友」(friends),這也是因應時代的不同而作出的一些修改。

5. 以現代語言意會原文信息(Dynamic Equivalent with Modern Speech)的譯本, 例如Today's English Version (TEV)。

Today's English Version (TEV) TEV是一本受美國人歡迎的英文聖經譯本。TEV用Dynamic-Equivalence的譯經原則,使讀者可以親切地感受到原文的意思。TEV的特色透過淺白而常用的英語,把經文的原意表達出來,所以這是適合閒時閱讀的譯本。

6. 非按原文字眼意譯的譯本(Paraphrastic),例如New Living Translation (NLT)。

New Living Translation (NLT) NLT是The Living Bible的重新修訂本,由超過九十個福音派學者花了七年譯成。他們根據原文聖經,以現代人常用的詞語表達原作者的意思,而不直接翻譯原作者所寫的字眼,因此譯文比較現代化,也能找到作者原意。然而這譯本保留The Living Bible的風格,故不適用於嚴謹、學術性的聖經研究。

九十年代,英文聖經也出現了兩個新譯本,就是Contemporary English Version (CEV)及The Message。

Contemporary English Version (CEV) CEV於1994年完成。CEV是一本為朗讀聖經及聆聽聖經的人而設的譯本。譯者認為,聖經主要是讀得順暢、聽得舒服,因為福音也是用口傳開的。所以CEV的特色是不僅注重原文翻譯,在詞語的選用、語句的結構、段落的排列等也配合朗讀者抑揚頓挫的表達與聽者聆聽時的感受。例如現代人較少用的概念式詞語「救恩」(Salvation),就用「神拯救你」(God saves you)這些較具體化的現代英語表達。

The Message The Message是現時較新的英文新約譯本(1994年出版)。譯者是當了35年的牧者Eugene H. Peterson。他認為逐字直譯的譯本不能傳遞聖經原有的神髓,必須用日常生活中常用的英語表達出來,就是在街上、餐廳、學校常說的語言(Street Language),聽起來既易明又傳神。

參考書目:

Comfort, P.W. (1996). The Complete Guide to Bible Versions. Illinois: Tyndale.

Craigie, P.C. (1983). Word Biblical Commentary: Psalms 1-50. Texas: Word.

Lewis, J. P. (1981). The English Bible From KJV to NIV: A History and Evaluation. Grand Rapids: Baker Book House.

Peterson, E. H. (1993). The Message: The New Testament in Contemporary English. Introduction. Colorado: Navpress.

Holy Bible. New Revised Standard Version (1989). To the Reader. New York: OUP.

The Promise: Contemporary English Version (1995). Preface. Nashville: Thomas Nelson.

引用http://www.ibs.org.hk/)

限於時間,就此打住。多謝。 

偽經:

有些人在聖經外弄些偽經騙世人,例如:

 THE BOOK OF ABRAHAM 亞伯拉罕書

A PART OF THE SCRIPTURES USED TODAY BY THE CHURCH OF JESUS CHRIST OF LATTER-DAY SAINTS –THE MORMONS.是現今耶穌基督後期聖徒教會(即摩門教)所使用經文的一部份

BUT WHERE DID THIS BOOK COME FROM?但是,這本書由何而來?

JOSEPH SMITH, FOUNDER OF THE MORMON CHURCH, CLAIMED TO TRANSLATE IT FROM AN ANCIENT EGYPTIAN SCROLL THAT HE PURCHASED FROM AN ANTIQUITIES DEALER IN 1835.  斯密約瑟摩門教的創始人,宣稱此書係由他在1835年向一位古董商買來的一份古埃及紙卷翻譯而成。SMITH CLAIMED THE SCROLL CONTAINED A LOST BOOK OF ABRAHAM斯密氏宣稱此紙卷包函一本失落的亞伯拉罕書 – AN ORIGINAL TEXT NEARLY 4,000 YEARS OLD.一份約四千年之久的原始文件

AT THE TIME, NO ONE IN AMERICA COULD READ ANCIENT EGYPTIAN.在美國當時無人會讀古埃及文。 BUT TODAY, EGYPTOLOGISTS KNOW EXACTLY WHAT IT SAYS.  但是今日埃及古物學家確知它寫的是什麼。SO WHAT WAS THIS ANCIENT SCROLL?  此份古代紙卷到底是什麼

THE STORY BEGINS IN 1833 IN THE EASTERN UNITED STATES, WHEN A MAN NAMED MICHAEL H. CHANDLER WAS COMMISSIONED TO SELL A COLLECTION OF ANCIENT EGYPTIAN ANTIQUITIES. 故事起於1833年在美國西部一位名為錢得樂麥可的人受託來賣一些古埃及古董。 THE COLLECTION INCLUDED 11 MUMMIES, two PAPYRUS SCROLLS AND SEVERAL SCROLL FRAGMENTS.其中有11具木乃矣,2卷紙草卷,及幾張紙草卷片段。

THE ARTIFACTS HAD ORIGINALLY BEEN EXHUMED BY A TOMB RAIDER NAMED ANTONIO LeBOLO IN THE EARLY 1820s FROM A BURIAL SITE ALONG THE BANKS OF THE NILE RIVER, NEAR THE EGYPTIAN CITY OF THEBES. 這些一位名叫黎伯羅安東尼的盜墓者,在1820年代早期從一個尼羅河沿岸靠近埃及底比斯城埋葬場挖出來。AFTER LEBOLO’S DEATH, HIS ESTATE SHIPPED THE ARTIFACTS TO NEW YORK CITY, HOPING THEY COULD BE SOLD FOR A PROFIT.黎伯羅死後,他的遺產繼承人將這些工藝品運到紐約, 希望賣錢營利

Michael Chandler was apparently acting as an agent for several businessmen in Philadelphia. 錢得樂麥可明顯地在費城做幾位生意人的代理。And apparently the arrangement was that he was supposed to display and sell these antiquities as he displayed them, and keep a small commission for himself and send the remainder of the money back to the businessmen in Philadelphia. 明顯地此項安排是他想展示並籍展示銷售它們,自已保留一點介紹費再將餘款匯給在費城的生意人。Once he was out on the road he apparently lost contact with these businessmen, and was dispensing of the antiquities as he went and keeping all the profits for himself. 出發後他明顯地與這些商人失聯絡,只得全靠這些古董並為他自己保留所有贏利。He had heard about Joseph Smith the Mormon Prophet and his abilities to translate languages, and so he wended his way to Kirtland, Ohio and arrived there in July of 1835.他聽說摩門教先知斯密約瑟和他翻譯語言能力,因此他走向了俄亥俄柯特蘭,並於1835 7月到達那裡。

CHANDLER’S ARRIVAL IN KIRTLAND WAS DESCRIBED AT THE TIME BY WILLIAM W. PHELPS, A MEMBER OF THE MORMON COMMUNITY, IN A LETTER TO HIS WIFE. 錢得樂來到柯特蘭一事,曾當峙摩門教社區成員菲爾蒲威廉在給他妻子的一封信中記述下來:

Four Egyptian Mummies were brought here; there were two papyrus rolls beside some other ancient Egyptian writings with them. 4具木乃矣被帶來此,還有2個紙草卷與一些其它古埃及寫作一起帶來。As no one could translate these writings, they were presented to President Smith. 無人能翻譯那些文件,它們被拿去給斯密約瑟會長看。He soon knew what they were and said they, the ‘rolls of papyrus,’ contained the sacred record of Joseph in Pharaoh’s court in Egypt, and the teachings of Father Abraham. 他很快知道它們是什麼並說這些紙草卷包含約瑟在埃及法老宮庭的神聖記錄,與先祖亞伯拉罕的教導。God has so ordered it that these mummies and writings have been brought into the church.神已吩咐這些木乃矣與文書要被帶到教會。

  That created a tremendous value for these papyri. 這使這些紙草創造了極大價值。But Chandler was unwilling to sell them by themselves, that was all that the Prophet was interested in. 錢得樂不願意出售先知所感興趣的紙草卷He insisted on selling the four mummies that were all that were left now – everything. 他堅持要將4具木乃矣與所有他現有的每件物品出售。He was ready to unload the entire collection of antiquities that he had left.他準備脫手所有剩下的古董收藏

  His selling price was $2400, which was an extreme sum in those day. 他要價2400元,在當時是很大的數目。Smith didn’t have it. 斯密氏沒有那筆錢。But since these were such valuable documents, Smith used two other people to invest sums of money and they did然而那文件是如此重要,斯密氏要另二個人投資,他們做了,and Chandler sold these antiquities to Joseph Smith, and that’s how came into possession of them.於是錢得樂將那批古董賣給斯密約瑟,此為他擁有的原因。

JOSEPH SMITH SAID THAT TO PROPERLY TRANSLATE THE SCROLLS WOULD TAKE SOME TIME. 斯密約瑟說要適當地翻譯紙卷需要一些時間。BUT that A FEW OF THE EGYPTIAN FIGURES WERE IMMEDIATELY RECOGNIZABLE TO HIM, 但是少數埃及圖案則立即被他辨識出來,AND HE INTERPRETED THESE FOR CHANDLER.他向錢得樂翻譯。 CHANDLER THANKED HIM PROFUSELY, 錢得樂對他極為感激,AND SUPPLIED AN AFFIDAVIT ENDORSING SMITH’S SCHOLARSHIP.並簽下一份對斯密氏學術成就的聲明。

TRANSLATION OF THE PAPYRI COMMENCED ALMOST AT ONCE, 翻譯紙草卷幾乎是立即開始的,WITH JOSEPH FOCUSING HIS ATTENTION ON ONE OF THE PAPYRUS SCROLLS WHICH HE IDENTIFIED AS AN ANCIENT RECORD OF ABRAHAM.約瑟專注於其中一件紙草卷,他辦認出那是一件古代亞伯拉罕的記錄。

IT WAS A REMARKABLE CLAIM. 那是一項驚人的聲明。COULD ONE OF THESE PAPYRI ACTUALLY BE A LOST RECORD OF THE PATRIARCHAL FATHER OF THE JEWISH, CHRISTIAN, AND ISLAMIC RELIGIONS? 其中一份紙草卷真的是一份猶太人、基督徒與伊斯蘭教的族長的遺失記錄嗎?AND DID JOSEPH SMITH REALLY HAVE THE ABILITY OR INSPIRATION TO TRANSLATE FROM ANCIENT EGYPTIAN? 斯密約瑟是否真的有翻譯古埃及文的能力或靈感?AND COULD THESE SCROLLS BE WHAT JOSEPH SAID THEY WERE?而這些紙草卷又是否真如約瑟所說的那樣呢?

  IN THE WEEKS IMMEDIATELY AFTER PURCHASING THE SCROLLS JOSEPH THREW HIMSELF ENTHUSIASTICALLY INTO THE TASK OF TRANSLATION. 在買下紙草卷後的數週約瑟熱心地將自已投入翻譯工作。HE RECORDS IN HIS DIARY THAT HE BEGAN BY DEVELOPING AN ALPHABET AND GRAMMAR OF THE EGYPTIAN LANGUAGE. 他在日記中記載他先研發出這種埃及語言的字母表及文法。THE TOWNSPEOPLE WERE DULLY IMPRESSED WITH THE WORK AND SCORES OF VISITORS WOULD CALL ON THE PROPHET TO SEE FOR THEMSELVES THESE WONDERFUL THINGS.此鎮居民都為此工作而幌神般地感動,並有大批人親自拜訪先知來看這項奇妙的事。   

IN 1835 IN AMERICA THERE WAS NO ONE WHO COULD READ ANCIENT EGYPTIAN. 1835年在美國無人能讀古埃及文。ALL KNOWLEDGE OF THE LANGUAGE HAD BEEN LOST FOR CENTURIES. 那語言的知識已失傳很多世紀。ONLY RECENTLY HAD THE FRENCH SCHOLAR JEAN-FRANCOIS CHAMPOLLION MADE A BREAKTHROUGH IN DECIPHERING THE ANCIENT EGYPTIAN LANGUAGE. 直到最近有位法國學者錢波黎真福蘭修才在解讀此埃及語言上有了突破。THE ROSETTA STONE – A TRI-LINGUAL INSCRIPTION IN GREEK, EGYPTIAN HIEROGLYPHIC AND demotic一塊羅塞他(尼羅河口小城之名譯者註)石頭上刻有希臘、埃及象形文、與通俗文字三種語文– WAS THE KEY WHICH ALLOWED CHAMPOLLION TO UNLOCK ANCIENT EGYPTIAN.成為錢波黎能解讀古埃及文之鑰。BUT HIS WORK WAS FAR AWAY FROM THE PIONEERS OF RURAL OHIO.但是,他的工作遠不及那位俄亥俄州的鄉下先驅者。

BUT IN HIS DIARY, JOSEPH SMITH CONFIDENTLY RECORDS DOING WHAT NO SCHOLAR IN AMERICA IN HIS DAY COULD DO但是在他的日記中,斯密約瑟大膽地記下在他當時的美國沒有學者能做的事 – TRANSLATING ANCIENT EGYPTIAN SCROLLS.翻譯古埃及紙草卷。

THROUGH THE AUTUMN AND EARLY WINTER OF 1835 JOSEPH continued to WORK ON THE PROJECT, 整個1835年秋和初冬約瑟繼續他的翻譯,AND THE MUMMIES AND THE SCROLLS WERE MOVED TO AN UPPER FLOOR ROOM HERE AT THE KIRTLAND TEMPLE, 而這些木乃矣與紙草卷被搬到柯特籣聖殿一間樓上房間,WHERE JOSEPH CONTINUED WORK ON THE TRANSLATION.約瑟繼續在那裹做翻譯。

BUT THE TRANSLATION PROJECT SOON TAPERED OFF, 但是翻譯工作很快緩慢下來,AND JOSEPH MOVED ON TO OTHER MATTERS RELATED TO LEADING HIS COMMUNITY.約瑟轉向有關領導他的社群的其他事務。

HE ESTABLISHED HIS OWN BANK IN KIRTLAND, 他在柯特蘭成立他自己的銀行,AND ISSUED HIS OWN CURRENCY. 並發行自己的貨幣。BUT, IN 1838, WHEN THE VENTURE WENT BANKRUPT, JOSEPH FLED KIRTLAND ON HORSEBACK IN THE MIDDLE OF THE NIGHT AND NEVER RETURNED. 但是在1838年,當該投機破產時,約瑟在深夜騎馬逃離柯特蘭未再回來過。

IN 1839 THE MORMON COMMUNITY RELOCATED TO A SMALL TOWN ON THE BANKS OF THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER KNOWN AS COMMERCE, ILLINOIS. 1839年摩門社群轉移到伊利諾州密西西比河岸一個名叫康某士的小鎮。JOSEPH RENAMED THE TOWN NAUVOO, 約瑟重新取鎮名為納府A HEBREW WORD MEANING BEAUTIFUL.是個希伯萊字意為美麗。  

IT WAS IN NAUVOO THAT JOSEPH WOULD ACHIEVE HIS GREATEST FAME. 納府,約瑟獲得他最高聲譽。HE WAS THE MAYOR AND HAD HIS OWN MILITIA OF NEARLY 3,000 MEN; 他是市長並擁有近3,000名自已的民兵;AT THE TIME, THE TOTAL U.S. MILITARY was LESS THAN 9,000.當時全美國軍隊人數少於9,000人。AND THERE WAS EVEN A MOVEMENT UNDER WAY TO NOMINATE JOSEPH FOR THE PRESIDENCY OF THE UNITED STATES. 當時並有人運作提名約瑟競選美國總統。

IT WAS IN NAUVOO THAT JOSEPH FINALLY PUBLISHED HIS TRANSLATION OF THE ABRAHAM SCROLL. 就在納府約瑟終於出版了他翻譯的亞伯拉罕紙草卷。IT FIRST APPEARED IN 1842 IN THREE INSTALLMENTS OF A MORMON NEWSPAPER CALLED THE “TIMES AND SEASONS.”它於1842年分3次連載,首先刊於一份摩門報紙「時代與季節」上。

IT WAS CALLED “THE BOOK OF ABRAHAM.” 它被稱為「亞伯拉罕書」。A NOTE AT THE BEGINNING INTRODUCED IT AS在文章前有一項附註介紹它是“A TRANSLATION OF SOME ANCIENT RECORDS THAT HAVE FALLEN INTO OUR HANDS, FROM THE CATACOMBS OF EGYPT, PURPORTING TO BE THE WRITINGS OF ABRAHAM, WHILE HE WAS IN EGYPT, CALLED THE BOOK OF ABRAHAM, WRITTEN BY HIS OWN HAND, UPON PAPYRUS.”「一項對原出於埃及地下墓穴,聲稱為亞伯拉罕在埃及親手寫在紙草上,被稱為『亞伯拉罕書』,後落入我們手中的一些古代記錄的翻譯」。

TODAY, THE BOOK OF ABRAHAM IS INCLUDED IN A VOLUME OF MORMON SCRIPTURE CALLED “THE PEARL OF GREAT PRICE.” 如今,「亞伯拉罕書」被納入一本稱為「無價珍珠」的摩門教經典中。IT IS CONSIDERED INSPIRED SCRIPTURE BY THE CHURCH OF JESUS CHRIST OF LATTER-DAY SAINTS, OF EQUAL AUTHORITY TO THE BIBLE.它被耶穌基督後期聖徒教會認為是與聖經同樣權威的受神感召的經文。

JOSEPH SMITH ANNOUNCED THAT HE WOULD PUBLISH ADDITIONAL INSTALLMENTS OF HIS BOOK OF ABRAHAM, BUT HE NEVER DID. 斯密約瑟宣稱他還會連載出版更多「亞伯拉罕書」的內容,但是他沒做到。AND IN JUNE 1844 HE WAS ASSASINATED.18446月他被槍殺。

And a group of Mormon dissidents published a newspaper called the Nauvoo Expositor,有一些對摩門教有異議人士出版了一份稱為「納府解說者」報紙, which accused Joseph Smith as Mayor, of taking too much into his own hands, and there were some references in the Nauvoo Expositor to the notion of plural marriage, 該報指控斯密約瑟做市長,中飽私囊太多,並在報上提出他一夫多妻的資料,so as mayor he sent the constabulary to destroy the newspaper. 做為市長的他就派警察毀了報社。And the governor brought him into Carthage, Illinois and put him in jail, put him and his brother in jail and then the governor turned his back and took the militia and went to Nauvoo to see what was going on in Nauvoo, leaving the jail unprotected, and then other militia with blackened faces came in and shot him.州長將他帶到伊利諾州卡太奇,把他和他的弟兄置入監獄,州長帶著民兵離開到納府一探究竟,使監獄疏於看守,有其他民兵與塗黑臉的人進入槍殺了他。

ON JUNE 27, 1844 HIS CELL WAS STORMED, JOSEPH WAS SHOT, 1844627日他的獄房有了騷動,約瑟中槍,AND AS HE FELL FROM A SECOND FLOOR WINDOW, 當他由2樓窗戶墮下時,HE WAS FIRED UPON NUMEROUS TIMES. 他曾被打數槍。NO ONE WAS EVER CONVICTED FOR HIS BRUTAL MURDER.沒有人承認犯下對他殘忍的謀殺。

IN 1846, UNDER THE LEADERSHIP OF BRIGHAM YOUNG, THE MORMONS MADE THEIR HISTORIC TREK FROM NAUVOO TO THE GREAT SALT LAKE VALLEY. 1846年,在楊百翰領導下,摩門教徒做了他們歷史上的遷移,由納府遷至大鹽湖山谷。AT THE TIME THIS WAS ISOLATED FRONTIER TERRITORY FAR FROM THE JURISDICTION OF THE U.S. GOVERNMENT.在當時該地區是孤立的邊陲,遠非美國政府管轄能及。

AND THOUGH JOSEPH SMITH WAS NO LONGER LEADING THE MORMONS, HIS BOOK OF MORMON, DOCTRINE AND COVENANTS, AND PEARL OF GREAT PRICE, INCLUDING THE BOOK OF ABRAHAM, ALL BECAME CANON, INSPIRED SCRIPTURES ON PAR WITH THE OLD AND NEW TESTAMENTS OF THE BIBLE. 雖然斯密約瑟不再領導摩門教徒,他的「摩門經」、「教義和聖約」、與「無價珍珠」其中包括「亞伯拉罕書」都成宗教典範,認為與聖經新舊約同樣是靈感經典。 

IN THE GREAT SALT LAKE VALLEY, THE MORMONS ONCE AGAIN PROVED THEIR ABILITY TO SETTLE FRONTIER TERRITORY AND BUILD A THRIVING TOWN. 大鹽湖山谷摩門教徒再次証明他們的能力定居於邊陲並建立一座繁華城市。

BUT THE SCROLL JOSEPH SMITH HAD IDENTIFIED AS A LOST BOOK OF ABRAHAM, REMAINED IN ILLINOIS IN THE POSSESSION OF JOSEPH’S MOTHER, LUCY MACK SMITH AND HIS WIDOW, EMMA.斯密約瑟辨認為失落的那本「亞伯拉罕書」的紙草卷則乃留在伊利諾州,為約瑟的母親斯密露西麥克與他的孀婦愛瑪所有。

IN 1856, 12 DAYS AFTER LUCY’S DEATH, EMMA SMITH WHO NOW SEEMED TO HAVE AMBIVALENT FEELINGS ABOUT HER LATE HUSBAND, SOLD THE PAPYRI TO A MAN NAMED ABEL COMBS.1856年在露西去世後12天,斯密愛瑪當時似乎對她前夫有矛盾情結,將該紙草卷賣給一位名叫柯姆亞伯的人。

EMMA, NOW REMARRIED TO A MAN NAMED LEWIS C. BIDAMON, PROVIDED AN AFFIDAVIT ATTESTING THAT THE ANTIQUITIES HAD BELONGED TO JOSEPH.愛瑪,當時已再嫁給一位名叫畢大蒙盧圍的人,她提供一項簽署文件証明此古董原屬約瑟所有。

TWO OF THE MUMMIES SOLD TO ABEL COMBS WERE LATER ACQUIRED BY A CHICAGO MUSEUM THAT WAS DESTROYED IN THE GREAT CHICAGO FIRE OF 1871. 二具售給柯姆亞伯的木乃矣後由芝加哥博物館取得,在1871年因芝加哥大火而燒燬。IT WAS ASSUMED THAT THE JOSEPH SMITH PAPYRI HAD ALSO BEEN DESTROYED – 因此假設斯密約瑟的紙草卷也同時被燬LOST FOREVER TO THE EMERGING KNOWLEDGE OF EGYPTOLOGY.使剛露出的古埃及學永遠失落了。

FROM EARLY ON, NON-MORMONS WERE DUBIOUS OF JOSEPH’S CLAIM TO HAVE RECOVERED A BOOK WRITTEN BY ABRAHAM 2,000 YEARS BEFORE CHRIST, AND LOST FOR NEARLY 4,000 YEARS.很早就有非摩門人士對約瑟聲稱有一本在基督之前2,000年由亞伯拉罕所寫又失落將近4,000年的書被他發現而半信半疑。

A MAN NAMED WILLIAM WEST, WHO VISITED THE MORMONS IN KIRTLAND AND VIEWED JOSEPH SMITH’S EGYPTIAN SCROLLS, EXPRESSED HIS DOUBTS IN AN 1837 PAMPHLET.一位名為偉斯特威廉的人,他到柯特蘭訪問摩門人士並看過斯密約瑟的埃及紙草卷,在一本1837年的小冊子中,表達了他的懷疑。

  : Is it possible that a record written by Abraham containing the most important revelations that God ever gave to man, should be entirely lost by the tenacious Israelites, and preserved by the unbelieving Egyptians? 一份由亞伯拉罕所寫包函神曾賜給人類最重要啟示的記錄,是否可能由關係密切地以色列人中完全遺失,而由不相信的埃及人所保存?And by them, embalmed and deposited in the catacombs with an Egyptian priest? 並由他們塗香油並與一個埃及祭司同置於地下墓穴?I venture to say no, it is not possible. 我敢說不,那是不可能的。It is more likely that the records are Egyptian.那比較可能會是埃及的記錄。

IN 1859 A FRENCH EGYPTOLOGIST NAMED THEODULE DEVÉRIA PROVIDED THE FIRST SCHOLARLY EVALUATION OF THE BOOK OF ABRAHAM.1859年一位法國古埃及學者名為迪維希送迪提出首度對「亞伯拉罕書」的學術評論。

THE FOCUS OF DEVÉRIA’S CRITIQUE WAS 3 ILLUSTRATIONS, OR FACSIMILES, THAT JOSEPH SMITH COPIED FROM HIS EGYPTIAN SCROLLS AND PUBLISHED AS PART OF THE BOOK OF ABRAHAM. 迪維希的評論注重在斯密約瑟由他的埃及紙草卷上複製並出版在「亞伯拉罕書」中的三個圖例或摹本。BELOW EACH OF THE FACSIMILES, JOSEPH PROVIDED HIS EXPLANATIONS OF THEIR MEANINGS. 在每個摹本下約瑟提出他對其含意的解釋。

ACCORDING TO JOSEPH, FACSIMILE 1 DEPICTS AN IDOLATROUS PRIEST ABOUT TO SLAY ABRAHAM ON AN ALTAR. 約瑟的解釋圖例1描繪一位偶像崇拜的祭司正要將亞伯拉罕殺死在祭壇上。AND IN THE TEXT OF THE BOOK ITSELF, THIS SCENE IS DESCRIBED AND SPECIFICALLY REFERRED TO.在該書的正文中對此情形有特別描述。

BUT DEVÉRIA NOTICED THAT THERE WAS SOMETHING WRONG WITH THE PICTURES 迪維希注意到該圖上有些錯誤– THEY CLOSELY RESEMBLED SCENES HE HAD COME ACROSS IN COMMON EGYPTIAN BURIAL DOCUMENTS, 圖例與迪維希見過的許多普通埃及葬禮文件很相似,BUT SMITH, ACCORDING TO DEVÉRIA, HAD COMPLETELY MISIDENTIFIED THE CHARACTERS AND THE SCENES.但依迪維希的看法約瑟竟全然誤解了文字與圖示。

IN FACSIMILE 1, SMITH LABELED THE STANDING FIGURE ON THE LEFT AS A PRIEST, KNIFE IN HAND, ATTEMPTING TO SLAY ABRAHAM. 在圖例1中,約瑟標示那位站在左邊手持刀想殺亞伯拉罕的人為一位祭司。IN REALITY, SAID DEVÉRIA, THIS IS THE EGYPTIAN GOD ANUBIS ASSISTING THE RESURRECITON OF A DECEASED EGYPTIAN. 事實上,迪維希說那是一位埃及胡狼頭神正在協助一位死去的埃及人復活。ANUBIS ALSO WAS DRAWN INCORRECTLY. 胡狼頭神也畫的不對。HE SHOULD HAVE BEEN PICTURED WITH THE HEAD OF A JACKAL他應畫一個胡狼的頭 – NOT THE HEAD OF A MAN.而非一個人的頭。

JOSEPH SMITH HAD EXPLAINED ANOTHER OF THE ILLUSTRATIONS IN THE BOOK OF ABRAHAM 斯密約瑟還對此「亞伯拉罕書」中另一圖例做了解釋– CALLED “FACSIMILE 3”被稱為插圖3 – AS ABRAHAM SEATED ON PHARAOH’S THRONE, LECTURING THE ROYAL COURT ON MATTERS OF ASTRONOMY. 說是亞伯拉罕坐在法老王的寶座上,向王宮貴族們講述天文知識。

BUT AGAIN, DEVÉRIA SAID JOSEPH’S EXPLANATION WAS COMPLETELY WRONG. 但是迪維希再次說約瑟的解釋完全錯誤。FACSIMILE 3 WAS ALSO A RENDITION OF A COMMON SCENE FROM EGYPTIAN BURIAL DOCUMENTS DEPICTING A DECEASED MAN BEING LED INTO THE PRESENCE OF OSIRIS, THE EGYPTIAN GOD OF THE UNDERWORLD.3也是埃及葬禮文件的一種普通情景表現,描繪一位死去的人被帶到奧賽里斯這位埃及冥神面前。  

IN THE YEAR 1912, FRANKLIN S. SPALDING, THE EPISCOPAL BISHOP OF UTAH, BROUGHT A NEW ROUND OF SCRUTINY TO THE BOOK OF ABRAHAM WHEN HE ASKED EIGHT NOTED SCHOLARS OF EGYPTOLOGY TO EVALUATE THE THREE FACSIMILES. 1912猶他州主管主教斯培丁法蘭克林重新對「亞伯拉罕書」做了仔細撿察,他請八位著名古埃及學者對那三個圖例做評論。TO A MAN, THEY AGREED THAT JOSEPH’S EXPLANATIONS WERE ERRONEOUS. SPALDING PUBLISHED HIS FINDINGS IN A BOOKLET TITLED JOSEPH SMITH JR. AS A TRANSLATOR.[xiii] 對此人,他們都同意約瑟的解釋是錯誤的。斯培丁將他的發現出版為一本小冊子,名為「做翻譯者的小斯密約瑟」。

THE SCHOLARS AGREED WITH DEVÉRIA’S VERDICT OF 50 YEARS EARLIER. 這些學者同意迪維希五十年前的判斷。                        

THE NEW YORK TIMES TOOK NOTE OF SPALDING’S FINDINGS AND ISSUED A BLISTERING TWO PAGE EXPOSÉ OF THE BOOK OF ABRAHAM IN ITS DECEMBER 29, 1912 EDITION.  19121229日「紐約時報」引述斯培丁的發現以2頁篇幅激烈地揭露批評「亞伯拉罕書」。THE MORMON CHURCH COULD NOT REMAIN SILENT IN THE FACE OF THIS WITHERING ATTACK ON THE CREDIBILITY OF JOSEPH SMITH AND THE BOOK OF ABRAHAM.摩門教面對這種對斯密約瑟與「亞伯拉罕書」的毀滅性攻擊無法沈默。 IT OFFERED ASSURANCES TO THE FAITHFUL IN A 1913 ARTICLE IN ITS’ MONTHLY MAGAZINE, THE IMPROVEMENT ERA.他們於1913年在他們的月刊「進步恃代」上刊出一將對這些忠實保証的文章。 

THE AUTHOR, PROFESSOR JOHN HENRY EVANS, 其作者艾文約翰亨利教授ARGUED IT WASN’T FAIR TO JUDGE THE CREDIBILITY OF JOSEPH’S BOOK BY ONLY REVIEWING THE REPRODUCED FACSIMILES. 辯稱僅只看複製的插圖就判斷約瑟的書的可信度是不公平的。EVANS INSISTED THAT TO DO ANY REASONABLE CRITIQUE WOULD REQUIRE ACCESS TO THE ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS THEMSELVES. 艾文堅持若要做任何合理批評必傾喬考原始文件。

BUT THE ORIGINAL JOSEPH SMITH PAPYRI WERE GONE 但是原始的斯密約瑟紙草卷已失落– ALMOST SURELY DESTROYED IN THE GREAT CHICAGO FIRE OF 1871.  OR WERE THEY?幾乎確定已在1871年芝加哥大火中被燬。不然它們何在?

BUT IN THE SPRING OF 1966 A DRAMATIC DISCOVERY WAS MADE RIGHT HERE IN NEW YORK AT THE METROPOLITAN MUSEUM OF ART. 但是在1966年春一項戲性的發現就發生在紐約大都會藝術博物館。THE CURATOR OF THE MUSEUM’S DEPARTMENT OF EGYPTIAN ANTIQUITIES 博物館的埃及古物部管理人– DR. HENRY G. FISCHER費雪亨利博士 – APPROACHED A VISITING RESEACHER FROM THE UNIVERSITY OF UTAH 走向一位由猶他大學來的訪研究者– PROFESSOR AZIZ S. ATIYA 艾提亞艾日博士– WITH A STARTLING ANNOUNCEMENT做了一項驚人的宣佈: THE MUSEUM HAD IN IT’S ARCHIVES ELEVEN PAPYRUS FRAGMENTS THAT HAD ONCE BELONGED TO MORMON FOUNDER JOSEPH SMITH!此博物館收藏中擁有原屬摩門教創立者斯密約瑟11塊紙草卷片。

FISCHER DIDN’T KNOW HOW THE MORMON CHURCH LEADERS WOULD REACT TO THIS NEWS AND HE WAS LOOKING FOR AN INTERMEDIARY. 
費雪不知道摩門教領導人會對此消息有何種反應,所以找個協調人。HE WONDERED IF DR. ATIYA, 他不知艾提亞博士A RESPECTED NON-MORMON 
FROM SALT LAKE CITY, 一位由鹽湖城來的非摩門WOULD ASK THE MORMON CHURCH LEADERS IF THEY WOULD BE INTERESTED IN ACQUIRING 
THE PAPYRI.是否願意問摩門教領袖他們是否有興趣取回這些紙草片。

NEGOTIATIONS BETWEEN THE METROPOLITAN MUSEUM AND THE MORMON CHURCH PROCEEDED大都會博物館與摩門教間不斷協商, AND ON NOVEMBER 27, 1967 THE MUSEUM PRESENTED THE ANCIENT SCROLLS TO THE CHURCH. 終於1967112此博物館將那些古代紙草卷拿給教會。

AN ARTICLE IN THE DESERET NEWS OF SALT LAKE CITY ANNOUNCED THE GIFT OF ELEVEN PAPYRUS FRAGMENTS, LONG BELIEVED TO HAVE BEEN DESTROYED IN THE CHICAGO FIRE OF 1871. 在鹽湖城「德撤律新」有一篇報導此項早被認為在1871芝加哥大火中被燬的11片紙草的贈與。WITH THE PAPYRI WAS THE ORIGINAL 1856 LETTER SIGNED BY THE MORMON PROPHET’S WIDOW, EMMA SMITH, CERTIFYING THAT THE DOCUMENTS HAD BELONGED TO JOSEPH SMITH.並同時刊出1856年有斯密愛瑪此位摩門先知孀婦簽名証明該文件原屬斯密約瑟的信。

BUT DID THESE ELEVEN FRAGMENTS INCLUDE THE SCROLL JOSEPH SMITH IDENTIFIED AS A LOST BOOK OF ABRAHAM? 11片紙草是否包括斯密約瑟所辨識的失落的「亞伯拉罕書」卷呢?IF SO, THERE WOULD FINALLY BE AN OPPORTUNITY TO VINDICATE HIS MIRACULOUS CLAIM OF HAVING DISCOVERED AND TRANSLATED A DOCUMENT FROM THE FATHER OF JUDAISM, CHRISTIANITY, AND ISLAM.如果有,那終於有機會來証明他不可思議的聲明,即他曾發現並翻譯一項由猶太人、基督徒與伊斯蘭教徒的先祖而來的文件。 

OF COURSE, THERE WAS ALSO THE POSSIBILITY OF UNDERMINING THAT CLAIM.當然也可能有機會毀損那項聲明。 

THE SAINTS WAITED EXPECTANTLY, AND HELD THEIR BREATH.聖徒們屏息期待著。

JOSEPH SMITH HAD DICTATED HIS TRANSLATION OF THE ORIGINAL PAPYRI TO HIS SCRIBES IN THE 1830’S. 斯密約瑟在1830年代向他的書記們口述翻譯原始紙草卷。IT WAS IMPORTANT TO IDENTIFY WHETHER OR NOT THE PAPPYRI FOUND IN THE 1960S WERE THE SAME ONE’S HE USED DURING THIS PROCESS.要辨認於1960年代找到的紙草卷是否與他翻譯時所用相同是重要的。

THE FIRST CLUE WAS THE MOST OBVIOUS. 第一個線索很明確。THE TORN PICTURE FOUND IN ONE OF THE FRAGMENTS WAS AN IDENTICAL MATCH TO THE FAMILIAR PICTURE IN THE BEGINNING OF THE BOOK OF ABRAHAM. 其中一片中有個破損的圖正好與所熟晰的「亞伯拉罕書」開始的圖完全吻合。IN FACT, THE TEARS ON THE ORIGINAL CORRESPONDED EXACTLY TO WHERE THE BOOK OF ABRAHAM DRAWING SEEMED TO GO AWRY.事實上,原圖各撕裂處正與「亞伯拉罕書」之圖相符而略有錯誤。  

THE BOOK OF ABRAHAM ITSELF MENTIONS THAT THIS SCENE APPEARED “AT THE COMMENCEMENT OF THE RECORD” 亞伯拉罕書中提到該圖出現於「此記錄的開始」– IN OTHER WORDS, 換言之,AT THE BEGINNING OF THE SCROLL.  就是紙草卷的開始處。EGYPTIAN READS FROM RIGHT TO LEFT, 埃及文由右向左讀,AND JOSEPH SMITH, WHO WAS AT THE TIME STUDYING HEBREW, WHICH ALSO READS FROM RIGHT TO LEFT,當時斯密約瑟正在學希伯萊文也是由右向左讀, MUST HAVE SURMISED THIS. 必然猜到此點。IT SEEMED CERTAIN THAT THIS PIECE WAS THE BEGINNING OF THE SCROLL USED BY JOSEPH SMITH.看來明確此紙草片是斯密約瑟用來做開始的。

THEN, ANOTHER DISCOVERY.  其次是第二項發現。A SEQUENCE OF CHARACTERS ON A SECOND PIECE OF PAPYRUS MATCHED EXACTLY A STRING OF CHARACTERS WRITTEN IN THE LEFT COLUMN OF THE TRANSLATION MANUSCRIPTS.在第二片紙草上有一段文字與寫在翻譯手稿左側一串文字完全相符。

IT APPEARED THAT, AT JOSEPH’S DIRECTION, HIS SCRIBES COPIED THESE CHARACTERS FROM THE PAPYRUS ONE BY ONE. 似乎是在約瑟的指示下,他的書記們由紙草上將文字逐一抄下。JOSEPH THEN DICTATED THE MEANING, OR TRANSLATION, OF EACH ONE 約瑟然後對每個字口述意思或翻譯– OFTEN WHOLE PARAGRAPHS FROM A SINGLE HIERATIC CHARACTER.通常由一個象形字翻成一整句。 

WHEN DR. KLAUS BAER, PROFESSOR OF EGYPTOLOGY AT THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO, EXAMINED THE PAPYRI FRAGMENTS, 業芝加哥大學教授拜爾克拉博士檢視此紙草卷時,HE DETERMINED THAT THIS SAME PIECE HAD AT ONE TIME BEEN ATTACHED TO THE PIECE CONTAINING FACSIMILE 1 他判定此片紙草曾與有插圖1那片相連– THE FIBERS AND EDGES MATCHED EXACTLY.維與邊緣都完全接合。

A THIRD PIECE WAS FOUND WHICH INCLUDED, THE SAME NAME – 第三片被找到有相同名字 “HORUS”「賀路斯」 –WRITTEN IN THE PUBLISHED VERSION OF FACSIMILE 3. 寫在出版的第3插圖中。ALTHOUGH THE FACSIMILE 3 PICTURE WAS NEVER FOUND, 雖然第3插圖未能找到,IT IS AT THE END OF THE BOOK OF ABRAHAM, 它是在「亞伯拉罕書」的結尾,AND IS ALSO VERY FAMILIAR SCENE. 、它也是為人熟晰的情景。TOGETHER, THESE FOUR PIECES FORM VIRTUALLY THE ENTIRE SCROLL IN ITS ORIGINAL FORM.這四片事實上構成此紙草卷的原始情形。

FINALLY, SCHOLARS COULD MEET THE CONDITIONS SET FORTH BY JOHN HENRY EVANS WAY BACK IN 1913.最後,學者們已能還原到1913艾文約翰亨利當時的情形。 NO LONGER WOULD THE CRITIQUE OF THE ACCURACY OF THE BOOK OF ABRAHAM RELY ON THE FACSIMILES ALONE.  對「亞伯拉罕書」的評斷已不必僅靠插圖。NOW EGYPTOLOGISTS COULD READ THE PAPYRI FOR THEMSELVES, 如今古埃及學者已能自已讀此紙草,AND SEE WHETHER THEY CONTAINED THE STORY OF AN EVIL PRIEST’S ATTEMPT TO SACRIFICE ABRAHAM ON AN ALTAR, OR AN ACCOUNT OF CREATION BY A MULTIPLICITY OF GODS.並看看它們是否包括一位邪惡祭司試圖將亞伯拉罕犧性於祭壇的故事,或由眾神創世的記錄。

IN 2001 DR. ROBERT RITNER, ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR OF THE EGYPTOLOGY AT THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO, WAS COMMISSIONED TO DO A COMPLETE TRANSLATION OF THE BOOK OF ABRAHAM SCROLL.2001年芝加哥大學古埃及學副教授雷特尼羅伯博士受委託對此「亞伯拉罕書」紙草卷做全部翻譯。

Dr. Robert Ritner雷特尼羅伯博士的說明: What this document really is, is an extended prayer on behalf of a deceased Egyptian priest which begins with an invocation to the god of mummification probably. 此文件到底是什麼,它是為一位死去埃祭司的漫長禱告,可能是向木乃埃化之神開啟的禱文。Certainly with a picture of the god of mummification to ensure his continued existence, to ensure the priest’s continued existence in the next world. 明確地有一位木乃矣化的神的圖像,以確使他繼續存在,並確使此祭司在另一世界繼續存在。And then it’s followed up by a series of statements where然後有一系列的敘述如, ‘Oh, deified Horus, 噢,神聖的賀路斯may you walk as you had done in life願你如在世般行走, may your ears function願你的耳能聽, may your eyes function願你的眼能看, may the gods receive you.’願神接納你。 Long series of invocations on this. 如此類長串祈禱。Essentially insuring that this dead priest is able to function in death as he had in life.重點在確使此死去祭司在死後能如活著般有功能but now as part of a company of the ancient Egyptian gods. Abraham is not mentioned once.但在古代埃及眾神中並未一次提及亞伯拉罕

From the evidence that we have today, 由我們現今所得事証,it’s quite safe to say that Joseph Smith did not have the Book of Abraham or the Book of Joseph in front of him in the form of these papyri可以很安全的說斯密約瑟並未具有「亞伯拉罕書」或「約瑟書」的紙草卷 because they bear no relationship to the contents of the stories or to his translation.因為此紙草卷與他的故事或翻譯沒有關係。

WE WANTED TO GET AN OFFICIAL MORMON EXPLANATION OF HOW THE CHURCH TODAY UNDERSTANDS THE BOOK OF ABRAHAM. 我們想得到此教會今日如何對「亞伯拉罕書」瞭解的正式摩門教解釋。HOWEVER, THE CHURCH OF JESUS CHRIST OF LATTER DAY SAINTS DECLINED OUR REQUEST FOR AN INTERVIEW.然而耶穌基督後期聖徒教會拒絕我們的訪問。MICHAEL PURDY OF THE CHURCH’S PUBLIC AFFAIRS DEPARTMENT DID REFER US TO THIS BOOK BY MORMON EGYPTOLOGIST JOHN GEE該教會公共事務部的布迪麥克確曾推薦一本由摩門古埃及學者吉約翰的書要我們看 [A Guide to the Joseph Smith Papyri斯密約瑟紙草表指引. (Provo, UT: Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies, 2000)猶他州普羅孚:古代研究與摩門探究基金會,2000].

DR. GEE PUTS FORTH THE POSITION THAT OTHER THAN THE ORIGINAL OF FACSIMILE 1, THE JOSEPH SMITH PAPYRUS FRAGMENTS GIVEN TO THE CHURCH IN 1967 WERE, “NOT THE PORTION OF THE PAPYRI THAT CONTAINED THE TEXT OF THE BOOK OF ABRAHAM.” 博士採取另一種姿勢,說在原插圖1以外,1967年交給教會的紙草卷並非包函「亞伯拉罕書」正文的紙草卷。HE CLAIMS THE SCROLL JOSEPH USED WAS ORIGINALLY 10 FEET LONG, 他宣稱約瑟用的紙草卷原有10呎長,AND THAT THERE WAS A LARGE SECTION THAT IS NOW MISSING, THAT MAY HAVE CONTAINED THE LOST BOOK.其中一大截遺失了,其中可能包括此失落的書。

Dr. Robert Ritner雷特尼羅伯博士: There’s certainly no reason that this particular book of breathing scroll should be expanded much beyond the surviving length. 實在沒有理由此栩栩如生的紙草卷會比現存長度長很多。I’ve now read the entire document from the beginning to end and made out what one could make out on the poor copy of the final vignette. 我已將此文件重頭到尾讀完並找出何以有人會做出那麼差的文章。The most that is missing from this text is simply two columns worth of Egyptian hieratic. 該正文頂多失去埃及象形文字2行。 And possibly a small vignette. 大概一小段文字。But other than that, there would be nothing more that would inflate its length much beyond its current size. 除此之外,無法再就它現有長度再膨脹太多。It is both unprecedented and unreasonable to assume that an intrusive text about a completely different matter – a narrative history of Abraham and his descendents – would have been inserted into a document whose beginning, middle and end is devoted specifically to the resurrection of an Egyptian priest.在一份特別獻於一位埃及祭司的復活的文件起始、中間或結尾處插入一段亞伯拉罕和他後裔們歷史敘述,即假設插入一段毫不相干的文字是既屬空前也沒有理由的。It would disrupt the document. 這會弄亂文件。It would have nothing to do with its content. 且與它的內容無關。It would be unprecedented and no other document would have such a thing. 這將會是空前的,過去從未有這種事。And the narrative style of the Book of Abraham does not correspond to Egyptian verbiage. 而這種「亞伯拉罕書」式敘述形的型式也不鄉符埃及文字風格。It’s not the kind of thing that Egyptians would say and they would not say it in that way. 埃及人不會說那種事也不會用那種方式言說。And it certainly would never appear in such a context as this. 它實在不會出現在那種文章中。It couldn’t possibly be more out of place.可能是太離譜了。

ANOTHER MORMON SCHOLAR, MICHAEL D. RHODES OF BRIGHAM YOUNG UNIVERSITY, 另一位楊百翰大學摩門學者羅德麥可WRITING IN THE ENCYCLOPEDIA OF MORMONISM, ARGUES THAT JOSEPH SMITH MAY HAVE RECEIVED THE BOOK OF ABRAHAM BY DIRECT REVELATION FROM GOD AND ONLY USED THE PAPYRI TO ILLUSTRATE WHAT HE LEARNED FROM REVELATION.在「摩門教義百科全書」中辯稱,斯瑟約瑟可能直接由神啟示獲得「亞伯拉罕書」,只是用紙草卷來示範他由啟示中所學到的。

RHODES WRITES, 羅德寫道“…WHEN STUDYING THE EGYPTIAN PAPYRI PURCHASED FROM MICHAEL CHANDLER, 當研讀向錢得樂麥可買來的紙草卷時,JOSEPH SMITH SOUGHT REVELATION FROM THE LORD CONCERNING THEM AND RECEIVED IN THAT PROCESS THE BOOK OF ABRAHAM. 斯密約瑟向主求問尋求啟示而獲得「亞伯拉罕書」。HE MIGHT THEN HAVE SEARCHED THROUGH THE PAPYRI IN HIS POSSESSION TO FIND ILLUSTRATIONS SIMILAR TO THOSE HE HAD LEARNED BY REVELATION.” 他可能曾在所擁有的紙草卷中尋找與他在啟示中學到相似的例証。

Now days it seems popular to say that, well, Joseph Smith didn’t claim to be translating, he just saw these illustrations and then was inspired with the text of the Book of Abraham. 現在流行說斯密約瑟沒說翻譯,他只是看到這些例証並由啟示接受「亞伯拉罕書」。But it doesn’t say in Joseph Smith’s diary he kept at the time he was looking the pictures or the illustrations and then was inspired to give to give a story that we now know as the Book of Abraham, but rather, that he was translating these characters.但是在當時斯密約瑟的日記中並沒說他是看著那些圖與例証然後因啟示說出我們現知的「亞伯拉罕書」的,反而他是翻譯這些文字。

From the Diary of Joseph Smith斯密約瑟的日記: This afternoon I labored on the Egyptian alphabet, in company with brothers Oliver Cowdery and W. W. Phelps, and during the research, the principles of astronomy as understood by father Abraham …今天下午我與考德里奧利佛及菲爾蒲弟兄一同做埃及文字解讀,在研究中被先祖亞伯拉罕與古代人所瞭解的天文學原理…..

This afternoon I re-commenced translating from the ancient records …這個下午我再度開始由此古代記錄中翻譯….

I returned home and spent the day in translating the Egyptian records …我回到家整天翻譯那埃及記錄….

Spent the forenoon instructing those that called to inquire concerning the things of God in the last days …上午用在教導那些蒙召來關心神在末世事工的人….

MICHAEL RHODES, OF BRIGHAM YOUNG UNIVERSITY, ALSO CLAIMS IN THE ENCYCLOPEDIA OF MORMONISM 楊百翰大學羅德麥可也在「摩門教義百科全書」中宣稱THAT JOSEPH SMITH’S EXPLANATIONS OF THE FACSIMILES ARE ACCURATE: QUOTE, 斯密約瑟對插圖的解釋是正確的引述“…THE PROPHET’S EXPLANATIONS OF EACH OF THE FACSIMILES ACCORD WITH PRESENT UNDERSTANDING OF EGYPTIAN RELIGIOUS PRACTICES.”先知對每個插圖的解釋都符合現代對埃及宗教教儀的瞭解」。

Dr. Robert Ritner雷迪羅伯博士: I want to be absolutely clear on this. 我對此要絕對陳清。There simply is no justification for the kind of interpretations that appear in Facsimile 1 or Facsimile 3. 對插圖13的解釋實在無可自圓其說。They are wrong with regard to the hieroglyphs它與象形文義不符。They are wrong with regard to the gender.在性別上也不對。 They are wrong with regard to the understanding of what the scene actually represents. 它與情景的真正表現含義不符。And where they are used in the body of the text, they are wrong there as well. 在引用到正文時也錯了。In short, there is no historical validity for the interpretations in that book. 簡言之,那書中的解釋沒有歷史的正確性。None whatsoever.無論如何都沒有。

But the thing about that that’s interesting is that none of those theories in the Church existed, no one ever talked about them, no one even thought them until after, that is the post-November 1967 time period where people are coming up with new explanations.有趣的是那些理論不曾在那教會存在過,沒有人提過甚至想到過,直到196711月以後人們才有了新的解釋。

When one looks at the evidence simply with common sense it becomes clear that Joseph Smith claimed that he was translating from these documents, 當一個人看事實很簡單常識就清楚斯密約瑟宣稱他由這些文件做翻譯,but in fact there is no correlation between his Book of Abraham and these ancient documents. 但事實上這些古代文件與他的「亞伯拉罕書」之間沒有關係。And therefore it simply can’t be a translation. 因此它不是翻譯。All of the other explanations have grown up in order to sort of put the finger in the dyke, as it were, to prevent the dyke from breaking.  所有想出的其它解釋有如將手指塞住堤防以免堤防崩潰一樣。But the clear evidence is that Joseph Smith did not translate this document.  清楚的事實是斯密約瑟沒有翻譯那文件。It’s not a document from antiquity.那不是由古物來的文件。

THE FOUNDATION FOR ANCIENT RESEARCH AND MORMON STUDIES 古代研究與摩門探究基金會簡稱為F.A.R.M.S.--F.A.R.M.S. – SPECIALIZES IN THE DEFENSE OF THE MORMON SCRIPTURES. 特別為摩門教經文辯護。WE WANTED TO INTERVIEW THEIR EXPERTS ON THE BOOK OF ABRAHAM, 我們想訪問他們的專家們對「亞伯拉罕書」的看法,BUT THEY DID NOT RESPOND TO OUR REPEATED REQUESTS FOR AN INTERVIEW.但是他們對我們一再的請求不回應。  

有其它偽經可參考:

http://www.exmormon.org/tract2.htm

http://tw.myblog.yahoo.com/newlifechruch-taipeitaiwan/article?mid=5195&prev=5196&next=5164&l=f&fid=29